Day 1 :
- Internet of Things (IOT),Wireless Communication, 5G and Beyond, Antennas, Remote Sensing, Ad Hoc and Sensors Networks, Telecommunication, Technology for Wireless, Satellite Communication, Mobile and Wireless Network
Zhejiang University, China
SAH Mohsan has completed his BS and MS in Electrical Engineering from CUI, Pakistan. Currently, he is pursuing PhD (Final Year) from Ocean College, Zhejiang University. He has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals and international conferences. He has been serving as reviewer in reputed journals and Technical Program Committee member of internal conferences.
The intelligent information society, which is globally data driven, highly inspired and digitized, will be developed in coming few years. The next sixth-generation (6G) wireless networks are the main elements to enable this research study, which will offer full dimensional wireless connectivity and incorporate all features to facilitate full-vertical applications. Recent researchers have focused on intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) with wirelessly control capabilities in future 6G networks. Specifically, IRS can smartly alter the wavefronts e.g., frequency, amplitude, phase and polarization thereby collectively achieving fine-grained three-dimensional (3D) passive beamforming to enhance signaling or nulling by using massive tunable components without any signal transmission using radio-frequency (RF) chains and suppressing interference at one or more designated receivers. IRS is a novel technique which can tune wireless communication to boost energy and spectrum efficiencies. IRS has the capability to dynamically alter the wireless channel to improve the system performance by intelligently reconfiguring signal propagation by leveraging cost-efficient passive reflecting elements incorporated on a planar surface. IRS has also received significant attention as it can reduce the physical size, hardware complexity and cost of traditional large arrays. It is anticipated that the IRS-assisted wireless hybrid network containing both active and passive elements will be most emerging to enable a cost-effective and sustainable capacity growth. Motivated by the potentials of this revolutionizing technology, here I present an overview of IRS including the system hardware design, working principle, comparison with recent notions, IRS-assisted future 6G wireless networks and reasons that why IRS necessitates to reconsider the existing conventional communication model employed in wireless networks. Besides, this study discusses performance analysis and application scenarios of IRS. At last, several challenges and open research issues of IRS-assisted wireless networks have been investigated along with forecasting a future roadmap on standardization of IRS.
University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China
JIE HU [S’11, M’16, SM’21] ([email protected]) received his B.Eng. and M.Sc. degrees from Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China, in 2008 and 2011, respectively, and received the Ph.D. degree from the School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, U.K., in 2015. Since March 2016, he has been working with the School of Information and Communication Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), China. He is now a Research Professor. He has been elected into UESTC’s Fundamental Research Program for Young Scientists since 2018. He also won UESTC’s Academic Young Talent Award in 2019. Now he is supported by the “100 Talents” program of UESTC. His research now is mainly funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC). He is an editor for both IEEE Wireless Communications Letters and IET Smart Cities. He serves for IEEE Communications Magazine, IEEE/CIC China Communications and ZTE communications as a guest editor. He is now an active member of IEEE Wireless Communications Technical Committee and IEEE Technical Committee on Green Communications and Computing (TCGCC). He is a program vice-chair for IEEE TrustCom 2020 and workshop chair for IEEE SustainCom 2020.
Statement of the Problem: In order to satisfy the power-thirst of the IoT devices and thus extend their lifespan, the radio frequency (RF) signal aided wireless power transfer (WPT) is exploited for remotely charging. Carefully coordinating both the WPT and wireless information transfer (WIT) yields an emerging research trend in simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT). However, the SWIPT system designed by assuming Gaussian distributed input signals may suffer from substantial performance degradation in practice, when the finite alphabetical input is considered. In this talk, we will provide a design guide of the coding controlled SWIPT and study the modulation design in both the single-user and multi-user SWIPT systems. We hope that this guide may push the SWIPT a step closer from theory to practice.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: By controlling the output code word of a unary coding based encoder and by controlling the output symbols of a modulator, we are capable of shaping the corresponding waveforms sent in air by a SWIPT transmitter. A theoretical performance analysis and the optimal design have been conducted for improving the SWIPT performance.
Findings: The impacts of both the coding and the modulation on SWIPT performance and the rationale behind have been firstly revealed. From the information theoretical perspective, the WIT and WPT are conflicted parties. Our design is capable of harmoniously coordinating both the WIT and WPT in the same spectrum.
Conclusion & Significance: Due to the divergent characteristics of hardware, WIT and WPT have different requirements on RF signals emitted by SWIPT transmitters. Efficient coding and modulation approaches are designed for shaping RF signals so as to improve attainable SWIPT performance.
Key Soft Computer Education, India
Dr. Srinivasa Rao Gundu has pursued his Bachelor of Science and Master of Computer Applications from Osmania University and Ph.D. in Computer Sciences from Dravidian University, India. He is presently working as a Senior Software Trainer in Key soft Computer Education. He is an Advisory Board Member of World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology (WJERT), Associate Member of the International Association of Innovation Professionals, Member of Institute of Mathematical Statistics, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, Computer Science Teachers Association Individual Basic Member USA, Internet Society Global Member and International Association of Engineers. His research work is focused on Load balancing in Cloud computing. His Research Interests are Cloud Computing, Artificial Intelligence and Internet of things. His publications are on current research-21 (Sci Indexed Journal -1, Web of Science -1 & Springer nature -5, other journals -14 Papers) on other topics- 5, IEEE Conference Papers -2, attended 13 Conferences.
Statement of the Problem: Since the world has become very gregarious for handling impeccable knowledge to savvy and scrupulous educators, in this era of scientific inventions. Today it is aimed to gravitate to innovative ideas in the field of science and technologies with human touch. It is the time to tease off and endorse to bring out precocious advancements in the field of science and technologies. Today all are committed to the creation, dissemination and acquisition of knowledge through our Research and Developments. As unprecedented methodologies phase in to create a pathfinder way, new innovative and gravitate ideas. Everyone have the societal responsibility to motivate every individual to increase the gravity of responsibility and to commit them for their appropriate role in their services as per their knowledge across the globe. It is needed to promote the most advantageous learning and service which are well harmonized and clearly express by allowing everybody to successfully plan their knowledge and completely achieve the knowledge they need. It is needed to focus on thriving technological trends for the prosperity and opportunities for the human endeavor in recent times and in coming of the years too.
Cloud computing as a massive information technology aimed for the purpose of remotely supplying scalable and measurable IT resources. In terms of evaluation, respondents in business units are less inclined to transfer power to appropriate IT for picking public clouds (41%), determining/advising on which apps pass to the cloud (45%), and selecting private clouds (40%). Overall, Cloud Challenges are declining: Expertise, Security, and Spend Tie for First Place Lack of assets/understanding, the top cloud assignment in recent years. Concerns about security have also decreased to 25%, down from 29% last year. Dealing with costs is the most frequently stated venture among seasoned cloud users (24 percentages). Users are focusing on costs as a result of significant waste in cloud spending. The Latest trends in this field are Server less Computing and Multi-Vendor Approach.
Conclusion & Significance: In today's society, technology is probably the most powerful medium of communication. Technological advancements provide new answers to the most serious worldwide issues of our day, yet they are not without risk. Each firm is now a period commercial enterprise in an enterprise atmosphere pushed by effective virtual forces, disruption, and rapid-fire innovation, whereas technology was once confined primarily to operations and its execution. Technological and digital manifestation today pervades all aspects of commercial activity, from concept to delivery. Technology has previously been restricted largely to operations and execution; nevertheless, its virtual manifestation now informs all components of company organization, from maintenance to transportation. On every day, it is witnessed how the technology drives product fashion, upends old enterprise trends, and rewires competitiveness. The ascension of the exponential era to a position of strategic grandeur has occurred inside a tumultuous setting. Globalization is causing an increase in put in and developing marketplaces without regard for borders. Barriers to entrance are being reduced, if not eliminated.
Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, India
Dr. Vinod Kumar Verma is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal, Punjab, India. Dr. Verma has published many research papers in the International Journals of IEEE, Springer, Elsevier, Taylor and Francis. Dr. Verma is also serving as Editorial Board Member / Reviewer for many International Journals like IEEE Sensor Journal, USA, IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems, USA, ELSEVIER Computer Networks, Dr Verma has served many International conferences in different capacities at UK (2012), USA (2014), JAPAN (2015), ITALY (2016) ,AUSTRALIA (2017), FRANCE (2018).
The integration of the Internet of things and wireless communications enables the community to think for innovative solution for real life applications. The adaptability of these solutions lie in the framework of security encompassed over the associated nodes and devices. There are numerous strategies and protocols that have been emerged in order to provide accurate and efficient solutions for these applications. The security of the deployed applications using internet of things and wireless networks depends on a number of factors including routing, coverage, accuracy, reliability, trust and reputation etc. Out of these factors, some influence the network more as compared to others depending on the deployed environment. This presentation highlights the significance of routing attacks towards the security of IoT based applications. Commonly used security attacks on routing protocols for low power and lossy networks (RPL) have been analyzed in the Internet of Things. The simulation based study has been carried out to stimulate RPL attacks namely: hello-flood, decreased-rank and increased-version. For the given scenarios, these attacks can be analyzed one by one or in a simultaneous manner. In addition, machine learning using artificial neural network (ANN)-based supervised methods can be opted for addressing the security attacks. As the performance measures, a number of parameters can be addressed. These parameters are accuracy, precision, recall, F1-score and Mathew’s correlation coefficient (MCC). Overall, there is a need to explore more in the direction of security attacks to protect the real time applications from unauthorized and unauthenticated access.
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden
Mahlet Demere Tadesse is a PhD student at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Energy and Technology. Her research focuses on the impact of digitalization and automation in enhacing the performace of supply chains in low-income countries. Prior to the PhD, she was a lecturer at Addis Ababa Institute of Technology, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering in Addis Ababa Ethiopia.
Integration of digitalization and automation with logistics systems promotes effective and efficient flow of goods, information, and services, contributing to economic development. The level of implementation of digitalization and automation in low-income countries is still low, however. The aim of this study is to establish which digitalized logistics practices could best be adopted by firms in low-income countries. A systematic literature review was used to identify state-of-the-art digitalization and automation technologies in logistics chains. Criteria for adopting digitalized logistics practices were also identified in the literature review. An expert survey was conducted to identify criteria weights using analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Economic benefit, infrastructure, and affordability were the criteria that were given the highest weights by the experts. Case studies that applied state-of-the-art technologies such as internet of things (IoT), radio frequency identification (RFID), blockchain, big data analytics (BDA), and sensors mainly for traceability, production operation, and warehouse and inventory management were considered as recommended practices. Identification of suitable practices considering the local conditions in low-income countries could help logistics professionals and policymakers adopt enabling technologies in logistics chains.
Vidyalankar Institute of Technology, India
Dr. Saurabh N. Mehta has more than 19 years of professional, research, and teaching experience in wireless system development all together. He is currently working as a chief academic officer and professor in the department of electronics and telecommunication at Vidyalankar Institute of Technology, Mumbai. He is responsible for integrating academia and industry collaboration, research program, planning, and educational training for vidyalankar institute of technology, Mumbai. He earned his B.E., M.S., and PhD. degrees in Electronics Engineering from Mumbai University, Mumbai, India, Ajou University, South Korea, and Inha University, South Korea, in 2002, 2005, and 2011, respectively. He has over 80 research articles published in books, journals, national and international conferences, and several technical contributions to IEEE standards. He has been a reviewer, technical committee member, and editorial board for many international/national conferences and journals. Currently he is also serving as Secretary at IEEE Bombay Section.
Statement of the Problem: In India, engineering programs are the most popular carrier choice for students. However, the employability of these students is a big challenge. As per the latest Indian government report, only 35% of UG students have the necessary real-world employability skills. Many of the students are lacking in designing, problem-solving, critical thinking, and hands-on skills. To address these gaps, we have made several changes in the curriculum framework, which has helped us filling employability gaps. The purpose of this case study is to present our experience with colleagues and other educators around the world.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: We have introduced many new co-curricular components and problem-based learning teaching methodology in the existing curriculum, which has improved the designing, problem-solving, critical thinking, and hands-on skills of the students.
Findings: Our findings are as follows:
1. Students need challenging problems
2. Structured Mentorship can improve the students' engagement
3. Additional training on creative thinking can help the students in learning different skills.
Conclusion & Significance: Incorporating additional co-curricular activities, problem-based learning teaching methodology, and introducing additional training and hands-on workshops helped us address employability challenges. Our initiatives have improved the number of students' the internship and overall employability of the students.
University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany
Maher Khaliel} received the B.Sc. and the M.Sc. degrees in electrical engineering from Benha University in 2007 and 2012, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from the Institute of Digital Signal Processing, Duisburg-Essen University in 2016. His Ph.D. research was centered around innovating chinless RFID tags, developing the reader antenna, and integrating innovative approaches to advance the reader functionality. He has published a number of journal/conference papers, nominated for the Best Student Paper Award at European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP 2015 and 2017), and was a co-recipient of several awards, including the Best Paper Award of the 15th IEEE International Conference on Communications Systems (ICCS 2016). Maher is currently a senior developer at ID4us GmbH, Duisburg, Germany and post-doctoral researcher at the institute of Digital Signal Processing, Duisburg-Essen University.
Recently, Chipless RFID system has attracted tremendous potential in the field of item identification where the cost is the main concern. Further, it fills the gap where the chipped RFID solution couldn’t be utilized due to the chip presence which necessitates operating environment conditions and mechanical robustness. In this regard, Chipless RFID tags are playing significant role in the system. This presentation is introducing solutions of the efforts that have been spent so far to enable the technology deployment in the large scale. Moreover, it proposes novel solutions that will be published in the near future.
Content: First, the concept of encoding data without having RFID chip will be explained. Afterwards, solutions to maximize the coding capacity by exploiting the resonance properties and backscattering polarization planes are introduced. Then, the clutter mitigation solutions are explored in order to enhance the detection of the encoded data. Two main solutions are presented for clutter mitigation which are: (1) Directive pencil beam reader antennas, like Reflect Array; (2) Having the tag response in different polarization plane than the interrogation plane. After that the clutter suppression is enabled by introducing nonlinearity in the tag response. Lastly, solutions for increasing the reading range will be discussed.
Findings: Coding capacity up to 100 bits within encoding band of 2 GHz is achieved. Besides, reading range beyond the chipped RFID solution could be achieved.
Conclusion & Significance: Chipless RFID opens the door to new applications like indoor localization with centimeter accuracy which couldn’t be achieved with the chipped RFID counterpart. Accordingly, the technology will be massively employed in the upcoming technological trends; like IoT and 6G.
Yazd University, Iran
Mohsen Kazemian is the assistant professor of electrical engineering department, Yazd University, Iran. He received his B.S. and M.S. degree in electronics and telecommunications engineering from Azad University, Iran, Ph.D. in wireless communication engineering from University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia and post-doctoral in 5G wireless networks, Yazd university, Iran, in 2007, 2009, 2016 and 2020, respectively. His research interests include PAPR reduction, interference cancellation, and power amplifier linearization for wireless communications, especially NOMA systems.
Orthogonality in the different wireless networks will be investigated in my presentation. Orthogonality property is happened when the inner product of two vectors is equal to zero. In order to increase the efficiency, speed, and to decrease the bit error rate (BER) and inter user interference (IUI), this technique is used in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), and carrier aggregation-based systems. It will be shown that orthogonality can be used in 5G networks, as well. Finally, the orthogonality role in reducing the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) in 4G and 5G networks will be discussed.
National Institute Of Technology Sikkim, India
Surajit Kundu received his B.Tech degree in ECE from Academy of Technology West Bengal University of Technology India in 2009 M.Tech degree from Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur in 2012 and Ph. D. degree from National Institute of Technology Sikkim India in 2018. He has served the department of ECE SKFGI as Assistant Professor in 2012 and worked in UIT the University of Burdwan in 2013 as Assistant Professor. Presently he is serving as Assistant Professor in the Department of ECE NIT Sikkim. He has published 38 research papers in referred journals and conference proceedings of repute. His research interest includes antenna design ultra-wideband communication EBG materials metasurfaces satellite communication & navigation and ground penetrating radar. He received “Young Indian Radio Scientist” Award from URSI-InRaSS in AP-RASC 2019. Dr. Kundu is a senior member of IEEE and URSI since 2020.
Statement of the Problem: Impulse Radar such as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is commonly used as EM scanner to produce the pseudo images of buried objects. Depth and lateral resolutions of such scanning techniques can be improved by enhancing the working bandwidth. Planar antennas in the commercial Ultra-wideband (UWB) are potential candidate to improve the resolutions due to the wide spectrum coverage from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz. However the soil attenuation increases with increase in frequency which restricts the depth of coverage. One unique way to solve this issue is addressed here by integrating UWB frequency selective surface (FSS) to the antenna for gain augmentation.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Antenna radiation can be enhanced in various ways such as array configuration using metallic reflector but these methods are not suitable for UWB. Metamaterial inspired periodic electromagnetic band gap materials can act as partial reflective surface when integrated below the antenna and enhance the antenna radiation in the broadside direction by reflecting the antenna s back radiation. Due to the linearly decreasing reflection phase response of reflective surface the reflected waves become co phased with the transmitted wave in broadside direction and added constructively to improve the radiation and thus gain augmentation in the entire UWB without degrading other antenna pameters. The high gain UWB Antenna-FSS composite structure can be very effective for sub surface scanning applications.
Findings: Uniplanar and dual layered FSS structures are designed and integrated to the ultra and super wideband antennas. The characteristics of antenna with and without FSS are studied by simulation and experimental measurements where good correlation between the simulated and measured data validates the performance. The transient and frequency domain analysis of Antenna-FSS integrated structure is carried out in vicinity of different surfaces such as dry soil wet soil wood etc. where the fitness of proposed structure for GPR application is attained.
Conclusion & Significance: The conventional impulse radar antennas have certain limitations that can be improved by incorporating UWB antenna-FSS. The detailed study and comparative analysis with other reported work ensure the applicability of this solution
The National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences, Egypt
Mahmoud Abd El-Rahman is working in Department of Parasitology, Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki and Giza. Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt. Hisis international experience includes various programs, contributions and participation in different countries for diverse fields of study. Mahmoud Abd El-Rahman research interests reflect in his wide range of publications in various national and international journals.
Exploration of mineral resources is a challenge for the future of the economy and development in Egypt. However various geological metallogenic maps are available, many of such mineral resources are not well mapped and determined yet. The technology and the new techniques of earth observations developed to capture images of the earth can be functioned effectively to determine the alteration zones containing economic mineral resources as well as to define their exact location and spatial extension. Recently, remote sensing data have shown great potential in applications of various branches of geology. Since satellite sensors capture images with various spatial resolutions in many regions of the electromagnetic radiation (EMR), this can be widely used in geological applications. The main aim of this research study is to use the new techniques of remote sensing with both geophysical data and field studies to enhance the boundaries between the different lithological units and to delineate the alteration mineral zones to investigate and locate the potential areas for mineralization in the Gebel Monqul area. The integrated processed ASTER images and Gamma-Ray Spectrometry data analysis verified by the field geology helped in differentiating several alterations zones and the characteristic minerals from the hosted rocks. These alterations are confined to the volcanic and plutonic rocks depending on the lineament and fracture density among such rocks, in which the upcoming mineral-bearing hydrothermal solutions follow the rock fractures and lineament paths, leaving marks of alteration zones and mineral specifications in the altered rocks. Kaolinitization, sericitization, epidotization, and chloritization are the main types of alterations, developed by the action of the hydrothermal activity and the surrounding rocks. Lots of significant and related minerals are characterized by each type of alteration. These altered minerals are potentially associated with valuable minerals as sulphides and gold precipitations in the altered areas, which be suggested as valid localities for mineral exploration.
Islamic University of Madinah, Saudi Arabia
Dr. Ali is Associate Professor of Information Technology and Head of Accreditation & Quality at Islamic University, Al Madinah Al Munawarah, Saudi Arabia. He holds the current post since 2018. He specializes in the area of Wireless Sensor Network. He also working with ABET as Program Evaluator (PEV). He also available for ABET Accreditation consultancy in private capacity. He joined Aston University, Birmingham, UK and obtained his MSc Telecommunication Technology in 2007. In 2007, he joined Geotechnical Group, Department of Engineering, and University of Cambridge as Research Ass. (2007- 2009). In 2009, he was awarded a PhD (2009- 2012) scholarship from the Lancaster University, UK and he awarded PhD in 2012. He worked on the UK-NEES project and designed communication system for live experimentation between UK Universities (Cambridge, Oxford and Bristol). He was also part of the project at University of Cambridge “Installing Wireless Sensors in London Underground Tunnels” and it was collaborated with Imperial College, London. He is currently working as Assistant Professor and the Head of the Quality and Accreditation (ABET, NCAAA) in Islamic University Al Madinah Al Munawarah, KSA. His research interests are in the field of Wireless Sensor Network.
In the last half century, the world population migrated from villages to cities due to lack of facilities, education institutes, medical services and job opportunities in the remote areas. Due to this migration the big cities are under pressure to remain live-able and healthier because population increasing quickly as compare to the services infrastructure. As the city’s population increasing very rapidly and demand for the civic facilities remains very high. One of the major addition is the road traffic which become the big contributor in air pollution and make the environment very unhealthy. In modern era, it is important to persistently monitor the environmental pollution of city to make it healthier and live-able. Internet of Things (IoT) with smart sensor system is the solution which can be used to monitor the city for various purposes and one of them is the pollution monitoring in big cities. Sensor system can be installed and managed by integrating with IoT and be monitored by sitting in city central office. In this research work, a framework for air quality monitoring is proposed to monitor environmental pollution for the smart cities by using IoT and smart sensors. The proposed system is capable to measure the humidity, carbon emission, temperature, smoke, sound and other hazardous particulate in the atmosphere and send the measurements to city central office where it will be analyzed for further actions for the betterment of city environment. Collected data is banked in a data bank for future use and also can be shared with other research institute and environmental agencies.
Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, India
Dr. Nishu Gupta is a Senior Member, IEEE. He is a Postdoctoral Fellow at NTNU Norway as well as at the University of Oviedo, Spain. He received his Ph.D. degree from MNNIT Allahabad, Prayagraj, India which is an Institute of National Importance as declared by the Govt. of India. He is the recipient of Best Paper Presentation Award at the 4th International Conference on Computer and Communication Systems held at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore in 2019. Dr. Gupta has published 5 patents and more than 42 research articles in reputed SCI and Scopus Indexed Journals. He has authored and edited several books with international publishers. His research interest includes Autonomous Vehicles, Edge Computing, Augmented Intelligence, Internet of Things, Internet of Vehicles, Deep Learning, Ad-Hoc Networks, Vehicular Communication, Driving Efficiency, Cognitive Computing, Human-Machine Interaction, Traffic Pattern Prediction, etc.
Statement of the Problem: Channel selection is a challenging task in cognitive radio vehicular networks. Vehicles have to sense the channels periodically. Due to this, a lot of time is wasted in this delay-intolerant network. This time can be utilized for transmission of data. Employing road side units (RSUs) in sensing can prove to be useful for this purpose. The RSUs may select the channel and allocate to the vehicles on demand. However, this sensing should be proactive. RSUs should know in advance the channel to be allocated when requested. For this purpose, a deep learning algorithm namely DLOCS is proposed in this paper for training the network according to the previously sensed data. Proposed protocol is simulated and results are compared with the existing methods. The packet delivery ratio is increased by 2%, throughput is increased by 1.8%, average delay is decreased by 2% and primary user collision ratio is reduced by 3.2% when compared to similar recent works.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The CR-VANET scenario is shown in figure 1. It consists of RSUs and vehicles. These RSUs are placed along roadsides at some particular distance. Vehicles are equipped with on board units (OBUs) which consist of transceivers. With the help of this OBU, vehicles communicate with RSUs and neighboring vehicles. It uses IEEE802.11p and WAVE1609.4 standards. The transceivers are used to communicate between RSUs and vehicles. These RSUs periodically sense the channels to get information about cognitive channel availability. RSU computes the optimal CR channel after the processing of the sensed data. For the purpose of synchronization with the coordinated universal time (UTC), OBU contains GPS. The primary users (PUs) become active in a controlled random way since they are related to the activities of previous days. It is so because road traffic is not completely random at different days. After processing this data and training of the network, RSU selects the optimal channel. This channel is provided to the vehicles upon request.
Findings: The simulation of DLOCS is done using network simulator-2.34. Patches for VANET and cognitive radio simulation are used for simulation. Open Street Map and SUMO are used for generation of the simulation scenario. The generation of sensing data for different channels is done in a controlled random way. Matrix is generated on per minute basis. Columns show the data of each second during that particular minute. The elements of the columns are 1 with the probability p. This p is kept constant for next 60 minutes. It changes at 61st minute and remains constant for next 60 minutes. The value of p is high during peak hours (minutes 481-600 and 961-1140). Using this data, RSU calculates different parameters.
Conclusion & Significance: Avoiding collision of PUs’ transmission with SUs’ transmission is an important challenge in CR VANET. It requires intelligently processing of previous channel occupancy data. In this work, a deep learning approach is used to train the network to select the CR channel on which the probability of channel occupancy by PU is Minimum. For this purpose, first the sensing data is processed to calculate the mean value of channel occupancy per minute, consistency of channel occupancy per minute and the consistency of channel occupancy in adjacent minutes. These values are given as initial input to train the network. The network then learns about different channels according to the PU arrival during transmission. If PU arrives during transmission the reward is negative, and if the PU does not arrive, the reward is positive. DLOCS shows an improvement in comparison to existing methods. A comparison with most recent work shows that the PDR is increased by 2%, PU collision is reduced by 3.2% and delay is reduced by 2%.
Robin Chataut is an assistant professor in the Department of Computer Science at Fitchburg State University, Massachusetts, USA. He obtained his undergraduate degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering from Pulchowk Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal in 2014, and his Ph.D. in Computer Science and Engineering from the University of North Texas, Texas, USA, in 2020. Prior to completing his Ph.D., he was a senior software developer for Jhilko Innovations, designing android apps for autistic children. His research interests are in the areas of wireless communication and networks, 5G, 6G, and beyond networks, vehicular communication, smart cities, Internet of Things, wireless sensor networks, and network security. He has designed, implemented, and optimized several algorithms and hardware architectures for preceding, detection, user scheduling, channel estimation, and pilot contamination mitigation for massive MIMO systems for 5G and beyond networks. He has authored and co-authored several research articles. He is an active reviewer in several international scientific journals and conferences.
Globalization, networks today are facing high traffic demands, cellular base stations and wireless LANs (Local Area Network) are available almost everywhere. To meet this rising global demand, higher area throughput is required. The wireless area throughput can be increased by improving either spectral efficiency, cell density, or bandwidth. Starting from the development of the wireless network, either bandwidth or cell density has been increased to meet the increasing global demands. However, these resources (bandwidth and cell density) are reaching their saturation point. Furthermore, the increase in bandwidth and cell density makes the system more expensive, increases latency, and decreases the signal-to-noise ratio. However, with all these improvements, the third factor affecting area throughput, i.e., spectral efficiency has remained mostly untouched and unchanged.
To achieve the goals of the 5G, B5G (Beyond 5G), and 6G network, it is highly desirable to improve the area throughput by increasing the spectral efficiency rather than by increasing bandwidth or cell density. Massive MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) is a technique that increases the spectral efficiency of cellular networks by deploying hundreds or thousands of antennas at base stations and performing coherent transceiver processing. The massive MIMO system brings together antennas at both base stations and the user terminals to provide high spectral efficiency. It provides benefits such as low latency, high data rate, and improved array gain. Obtaining a better understating of the massive MIMO system to overcome the fundamental issues of this technology is vital for the successful deployment of 5G, B5G, and 6G networks. This poster will present a brief overview of the key enabling technologies required for future generation networks, highlighting the massive MIMO systems. It will also outline some new trends in massive MIMO systems such as ultra-massive MIMO (UM-MIMO), visible light communication (VLC), terahertz communication, 5G Artificial Intelligence, MIMO, machine learning, and deep learning for massive MIMO systems.